Scientific Articles

Bardon, K. J.  2012.  Fall diurnal migration of passerines and other non-raptors at Hawk Ridge and Lake Superior, Duluth – 2007-2011.  Loon 84:8-20.

Beckett, S. R. and G. A. Proudfoot.  2011.  Large-scale movement and migration of Northern Saw-whet Owls in Eastern North America.  Wilson Journal of Ornithology 123: 521-535. (used banding data from Hawk Ridge)

Bildstein, K. L., W. S. Clark, D. L. Evans, M. Field, L. Soucy, & E. Henckel.  1984.  Sex and age differences in fall migration of Northern Harriers.  Journal of Field Ornithology 55: 143-150.

Bowerman, W. W. IV, T. J. Kubiak, J. B. Holt, D. L. Evans, R. G. Eckstein, C. R. Sindelar, D. A. Best, & K. D. Kozie.  1994. Observed abnormalities in mandibles of nestling Bald Eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus.  Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 53:450-457.

Eckert, K. R., & T. Hammond.  1980.  Avian spectacular at Hawk Ridge.  Minnesota Conservation Volunteer 43: 46-53.

Eckert, K. 1984. First Annual Hawk Ridge non-raptor count.  Loon 56:11-15.

Eckert, K. 1986. A census of the fall migration on the North Shore of Lake Superior.  Loon 58:64-68.

Eckert, K. 1990. Lakewood Pumping Station census of fall migration.  Loon 62:99-105.

Ely, T. E., C. W. Briggs, S. E. Hawks, G. S. Kaltenecker, D. L. Evans, F. J. Nicoletti, J.-F. Therrien, O. Allen, and J. P. DeLong.  2018.  Morphological changes in American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) at continental migration sites.  Global Ecology and Conservation 15:e00400.

Evans, D. L.  1977.  Uncommon natural injuries of hawks.  Auk 94: 585-586.

Evans, D. L. 1977. Fall migration of Boreal Owls. Loon 49(3): 165-167.

Evans, D. L.  1982.   The wing loading method of weight control.  North American Falconer’s Association Newsletter (Hawk Chalk) 21: 55-59.

Evans, D. L.  1982.  Status reports of twelve raptors.  U. S. Fish Wildlife Service Special Scientific Wildlife Report 238.  68pp. — Includes Sharp-shinned Hawk recovery data from the Hawk Ridge Research Station.

Evans, D. L., & R. N. Rosenfield.  1985.  Migration and mortality of Sharp-shinned Hawks ringed at Duluth, Minnesota, U.S.A.  Pages 311-316 in Conservation Studies on Raptors, Proceedings ICBP World Conference on Birds of Prey, 26-29 April 1982, Thessaloniki, Greece.  ICBP Tech. Publ. 5.  494 pp.

Evans, D. L., & R. N. Rosenfield.  1987.  Remigial molt in fall migrant Long-eared Owls and Northern Saw-whet Owls.  Pages 209-214 in Symposium of Biology and Conservation of Northern Forest Owls, February 3-7, 1987, Winnipeg, Manitoba.  USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-142.  309 pp.

Evans, D. L.  1997.  The influence of broadcast tape-recorded calls on captures of fall migrant Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus) and Long-eared Owls (Asio otus).  Pages 173-174 in Duncan, J. R., D. H. Johnson, & T. H. Nicholls, editors.  Biology and Conservation of Owls of the Northern Hemisphere: 2nd International Symposium; 1997 February 5-9; Winnipeg, Manitoba. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NC-190.  635 pp.

Evans, D. L.  2000.  Interactions between Snowy Owls and large falcons at Duluth.  Loon 72:37–39.

Evans, D.L., G.J. Niemi, & M.A. Etterson. 2012. Autumn raptor banding at Haw Ridge, Duluth, Minnesota U.S.A., 1972-2009: an overview.  Journal of Raptor Research 46:36-49.

Farmer, C., D. Hussell, and D.Mizrahi. 2007. Detecting population trends in migratory birds of prey. Auk 124:1047-1062.

Gilmer, D. S., D. L. Evans, P. M. Konrad, & R. E. Stewart.  1985.  Recoveries of Ferruginous Hawks banded in south-central North Dakota.  Journal of Field Ornithology 56:184-187.

Green, R. F., D. L. Evans, R. N. Rosenfield, M. J. Evans.  1986.  Observation of North American Goshawk Invasions.  Paper at 19th International Ornithological Congress, June 22-28, 1986.  Ottawa, Canada.

Grosshuesch, D. 2007. Western Great Lakes region owl monitoring survey. Loon 79:65-71.

Graves, G.R. & G.J. Niemi. 2006. Possible predation of great gray owl by a barred owl. Journal of Raptor Research 40:175.

Hawks, S.E, D.L. Evans, and J. W. Grier.  2007.  Determining the sources of Northern Goshawks passing through Duluth, Minnesota.  Loon 79:187-193.

Hofslund, P. B.  1958.  Bird migration in the Duluth Area.  Flicker (now The Loon) 30:53-57.

Hofslund, P. B.  1962.  The Duluth Hawk flyway – 1951-1961.  Flicker (now The Loon) 34:88-92.

Hofslund, P. B.  1973.  An invasion of Goshawks.  Journal of Raptor Research 7: 107-108.

Hofslund, P. B. 1954.  The hawk pass at Duluth, Minnesota.  Wilson Bulletin 66:224.

Hofslund, P.B. 1966. Hawk migration over the western tip of Lake Superior. Wilson Bulletin 78:79-87.

Houston, C. S.  2005.  Long-eared Owls, Asio otus: a review of North American banding.  Canadian Field-Naturalist 119: 395–402.  Contains Hawk Ridge recoveries.

Hussell, D. J. T. and L. Brown.  1992.  Population changes in diurnally-migrating raptors at Duluth, Minnesota (1974-1989) and Grimsby, Ontario (1975-1990).  Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Wildlife Research Section, Maple, Ontario, Canada.  Sept. 1992.

Keith, L. B., & D. H. Rusch.  1989.  Predation’s role in the cyclic fluctuations of ruffed grouse.  Acta XIX Congress International. Ornithology 699-732. — Includes Goshawk data from Hawk Ridge.

Keyel, E. R., M. A. Etterson, G. J. Niemi, D. C. Evers, C. R. DeSorbo, J. C. Hoffman, J. W. Nichols, Y. Li, and F. Nicoletti. 2020. Feather mercury increases with feeding at higher trophic levels in two species of migrant raptors, Merlin (Falco columbarius) and Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus). The Condor: Ornithological Applications 122:1–17.

Lind, J.W., N. Danz, M.T. Jones, J.M. Hanowski, and G.J. Niemi. 2004. Forest bird population trends in Minnesota 1991-2002. The Loon 75:182-188.

Mackentley, N., E. A. Jacobs, and D. L. Evans.  2019.  Ageing Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus) from remigial molt patterns.  Journal of Raptor Research 53:387–392.

Marks, J. S., D. L. Evans, & D. W. Holt.  1994.  Long-eared Owl (Asio otus).  In The Birds of North America, No. 133(A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.). Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences; Washington, D.C.: The American Ornithologists’ Union.  24 pp.

Nicoletti, F.J. 1996. American Kestrel and Merlin migration correlated with green darner movements at Hawk Ridge. Loon 68:216-221.

Nicoletti, F.J. 1998. Summary of 1997 spring hawk count at Enger Tower, Duluth. Loon 70:47-52.

Nicoletti, F.J. 1998. The 1997 migration at Hawk Ridge. Loon 70:105-108.

Nicoletti, F.J. 2009. Summary of the West Skyline spring raptor count, 2000-2005. Loon 81:163-170.

Nicoletti, F.J., S. Millard, and B. Yokel. 1998. First description of albinism in a dark-morph Red-tailed Hawk in North America. Loon 70:117-118.

Nicoletti, F. J. 2001. Boreal Owl migration in Duluth: A pilot study in November 2000. Loon 3:165-168.

Nicoletti, F.J., D. Alexander, and R.Brady. 2005. The 2004-2005 influx of northern owls, Part III: Northern Hawk Owl banding. Loon 77:209-219.

Nicoletti, F.J. and P. H. Svingen. 2005. The 2004-2005 influx of northern owls, Part I: Northern Hawk Owl. Loon 77:132-140.

Nicoletti, F.J. and D. Alexander. 2006. Extra rectrices on Boreal and Northern Hawk Owls. Loon 78:108-111.

Niemi, G.J., A. Lima, J. Hanowski, & L. Pfannmuller. 1996. Recent trends of breeding birds in Minnesota and Minnesota forested regions – 1966-1993. The Loon 67:191-201.

Niemi, G.J. and J.M. Hanowski. 1997. Preface raptor responses to forest management: a Holarctic perspective. Journal of Raptor Research 31:93-94. (Guest editors of issue).

Niemi, G.J. and J.M. Hanowski. 1997. Concluding remarks on raptor responses to forest management: a Holarctic perspective. Journal of Raptor Research 31:191-196.

Niemi, G.J. 2012. In Memoriam – Pershing Benard “Jack” Hofslund (1918-2012). The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 124:821-822 and Loon 84:59–60.

Peterson, A. C., G. J. Niemi, and D. H. Johnson.  2015.  Patterns in diurnal airspace use by migratory landbirds along an ecological barrier.  Ecological Applications 25:673–684.

Platt, J. B. 1976. Gyrfalcon nest site selection and winter activity in the western Canadian Arctic. Canadian Field-Naturalist 90(3): 338-345. (Includes Gyrfalcon data from Hawk Ridge but Table 5 erroneously labels them from “N.W. Minnesota”)

Redig, P. T., M. R. Fuller, & D. L. Evans. 1980. Prevalence of Aspergillus fumigatus in free-living Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis atricapillus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 16: 169-174.

Rosenfield- R. N., & D. L., Evans. 1980. Migration incidence and sequence of age and sex classes of the Sharp-shinned Hawk.   Loon 52:66-69.

Rosenfield, R.N., D.L. Evans, M. Evans, and J.A. Cava. 2011. Shift in timing of autumnal migrating Sharp-shinned Hawks. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 123:154-158.

Rosenfield, R. N., D. Lamers, D. L. Evans, M. Evans, and J. A. Cava.  2011.  Shift to later timing by autumnal migrating Sharp-shinned Hawks.  Wilson Journal of Ornithology 123:154–158.

Rosenfield, R.N., S.J. Taft, W.E. Stout, T.G. Driscoll, D.L. Evans, and M.A. Bozek. 2009. Low prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae in urban and migratory Cooper’s Hawks in north central North America. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 121:641-644.

Schimpf, D. J., L. J. Goodrich, A. R. Kocek, and D. A. La Puma.  2020.  Northern Harriers have a geographically broad four-year migration cycle.  Journal of Raptor Research 54:38–46.

Seeland, H.M., G.J. Niemi, R.R. Regal, A. Peterson, & C. Lapin. 2012. Determination of raptor migratory patterns over a large landscape. Journal of Raptor Research 46: 283-295.

Taft, S. J., R. N. Rosenfield, & D. L. Evans. 1996. Hematozoa in autumnal migrant raptors from the Hawk Ridge Nature Reserve, Duluth, Minnesota. Journal of Helminthological Socety Washington 63:141-143.

Therrien, J.-F., N. Lecomte, T. Zgirski, M. Jaffré, A. Beardsell, L. J. Goodrich, J. Bêty, A. Franke, E. Zlonis, and K. L. Bildstein.  2017.  Long-term phenological shifts in migration and breeding-area residency in eastern North American raptors.  The Auk 134:871–881.

Titus, K. & M. R. Fuller, D. Jacobs. 1990. Detecting Trends in Hawk Migration Count Data in Avian Population Trends, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Report 90 (1).


Bildstein, K.L. 2006. Migrating raptors of the world, their ecology and conservation. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY U.S.A. Includes information on the importance of Hawk Ridge.

Bildstein, K.L., B.P. Smith, E. Ruelas Inzunza, & R.R. Veit, Eds.  2008.  State of North America’s Birds of Prey.  Pp. 37-151.  Raptor Migration in North America.  Nuttall Ornithol. Club and Am. Ornithol. Union.  Includes Hawk Ridge Sharp-hinned Hawk recovery data.

Erickson, L. and B. Bowen. Hawk Ridge, Minnesota’s Birds of Prey. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN. 91 pp.

Janssen, R.B.  1987. Birds in Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press. 352 pp.  Many references to Hawk Ridge records.

Palmer, R. S.  1988.  Handbook of North American birds.  Vol. 5.  Diurnal raptors (Part 2).  Yale University Press.  465 pp.  Hawk Ridge data, pp. 7, 156, 166.


Belmonte, L. 2007. Home range and habitat characteristics of boreal owls in northeastern Minnesota. M.S. Thesis, University of Minnesota, Duluth, 67 pp.

Davis, T. E.  1979.  Post-fledge activities of a family of Goshawks nesting in northeastern Minnesota.  M S Thesis, University of Minnesota, Duluth.  59 pp.

Evans, D. L.  1980.  Multivariate analyses of weather and fall migration of Saw-whet Owls at Duluth, Minnesota.  M. S. Thesis, North Dakota State Univ., Fargo.  49 pp.

Grosshuesch, D. 2009. Breeding biology of the Northern Hawk Owl in Minnesota and North America. M.S. Thesis, Biology Graduate Program, University of Minnesota-Duluth, 61 pp.

Hawks, S. E.  2004.  Origins of Northern Goshawks moving past Duluth, Minnesota as determined by hydrogen isotopes.  M. S. Thesis.  North Dakota State University, Fargo.  76 pp.

Jensen, E. 2009. The potential influence of land cover characteristics and agricultural pesticide use on American Kestrel populations. M.S. Thesis, Biology Graduate Program, University of Minnesota-Duluth, 69 pp.

Keyel, E. R.  2016.  Mercury accumulation in raptors.  M. S. thesis, Integrated Biosciences, University of Minnesota Duluth, 64 pp.

Kolbe, S. R.  2018.  The Common Nighthawk in northern Minnesota.  M. S. thesis, Integrated Biosciences, University of Minnesota Duluth, 56 pp.

Peterson, A.P. 2013. The use of terrestrial and airspace habitat by migratory land birds during autumn migration along a coastal ecological barrier. Ph.D. thesis, Conservation Biology, University of Minnesota, 109 pp.

Seeland, H. 2010. Determination of raptor migratory pathways over a large landscape. MS thesis, Integrated Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota-Duluth, 56 pp.

Steiner, R. L.  2018.  Fall raptor migration phenology and its relationship with weather.  M. S. thesis, Integrated Biosciences, University of Minnesota Duluth, 61 pp.

Ornithological Notes

Anderson, R. 1982.  Band-tailed Pigeon at Hawk Ridge.  Loon 54:249.

Backstrom, P.  1990.  Very late date for Swainson’s hawk.  Loon 62:57.

Bardon, K.J. 2009.  Mississippi Kite at Hawk Ridge.  Loon 81:158.

Bardon, K. J. 2011.  Mississippi Kite in St. Louis County.  Loon 83:47.

Bardon, K. J.  2012.  Mississippi Kite at Hawk Ridge.  Loon 84:202.

Bardon, K. J.  2013.  Clark’s Nutcracker at Hawk Ridge.  Loon 85:93.

Blockstein, D.E. and B. A. Fall. 1986. A heavy migration of Northern Flickers on the Lower North Shore. Loon 58:11-13.

Bronoel, J. K. 1954.  Duluth Club participates in hawk conservation.  Flicker 26: 94-95.

Carr, M. M.  1976.  Townsend’s Solitaire at Duluth [Hawk Ridge].  Loon 48:34.

Carr, M.M.  1977.  Worm-eating Warbler at Hawk Ridge.  Loon 49:45.

Cohen, R. R.  1959.  Tufted Titmice again seen in the Duluth area [Hawk Hill].  Flicker 31:133.

Eckert, K. 1979.  Prairie Falcon Observed at Hawk Ridge.  The Loon 51: 205-206.

Eckert, K.  1979.  Prairie Falcon Observed at Hawk Ridge.  Loon 51: 205-206.

Eckert, K.  1991. First Northern Minnesota Record of Mississippi Kite. Loon 63:282-3.

Eckert, K. 1991. Lakewood Pumping Station census of fall migration.  Loon 63:60-61.

Eckert, K. 1995. Fall 1994 Census of migrants at Lakewood Pumping Station.  Loon 67:47-49.

Eckert, K. 1996. Fall 1995 Census of migrants at the Lakewood Pumping Station.  Loon 68:35-36.

Eckert, K. 1997. Fall 1996 Census of migrants at the Lakewood Pumping Station.  Loon 69:105-106.

Edmondson, D.1997.  Another Prairie Falcon sighting.   Loon 69:45-46.

Evans, D. L.  1975.  A Gyrfalcon at Hawk Ridge.  Loon 47: 45-46.

Evans, D. L.  1975.  Fall owl migration at Duluth, Minnesota.  Loon 47: 56-58.

Evans, D. L.  1978.  Partial albinism: Saw-whet Owl and Goshawk.  Loon 50: 52-53.

Evans, D. L.  1981.  Banding recoveries from Hawk Ridge.  Naturalist 32: 18.

Evans, D. L.  1983.  Tennessee recoveries of raptors banded at Duluth, Minnesota.  Migrant 54: 17.

Evans, D. L.  1994.  First Minnesota record of the Common Ground-dove.  Loon 66:3.

Evans, D. L., & C. R. Sindelar, Jr.  1974.  First record of the Goshawk for Louisiana — a collected, banded bird.  Bird-Banding 45: 270.

Falk, L. and C.  1976.  Carolina Wren at Hawk Ridge.  Loon: 48:177-178.Fuller, M. R., and K. Titus.  1990.  Sources of Migrant Hawk Counts for Monitoring Raptor Populations.  Avian Population Trends, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Report 90(1).

Green, J. C.  1962.  Unusual fall migrants in Duluth. Loon 34:131 (includes observation from Hawk Ridge).

Grosshuesch, D.  2002.  Unusual observation of foot color in the Pine Warbler.  Loon 74:44-46.

Hofslund, P. B.  1954.  The Hawk Pass at Duluth.  Flicker 26:96-99.

Hofslund, P. B. 1955.  Hawk Flyway.  Flicker 27:158-159.

Howell, T. R. &. J. P. O’Neill.  1981.  In memorium: George H. Lowery, Jr. Auk 98: 159-166. – includes a picture of G. H. L. with the Goshawk banded at Hawk Ridge which was the first Louisiana record.

Lowery, G. H., Jr.   Louisiana Birds.  Revised 3rd edition.  Louisiana State Univ. Press.  651 pp. – includes account of the first record for the Goshawk in Louisiana, which was banded at Hawk Ridge.

Nicoletti, F. J. 1994.  Minnesota’s Second White-winged Dove.  Loon 66:213-214.

Nicoletti, F.J. 1995. A tale of “Tails”: new records at Hawk Ridge. Loon 67:9-11.

Nicoletti, F. J. 1995. An unusual plumage in Sharp-shinned Hawks. Loon 67:66.

Nicoletti, F.J. 1995. Late Turkey Vulture records. Loon 67:118.

Nicoletti, F.J. 1996. Three additional Mississippi Kite records from Hawk Ridge. Loon 68:215-216.

Nicoletti, F.J. 1998. Record high Pine Grosbeak count at Hawk Ridge. Loon 70:62-63.

Nicoletti, F.J. 1999. Band-tailed Pigeon at Hawk Ridge. Loon 71:48.

Nicoletti, F.J. 2002. First Minnesota record of a Black Vulture. Loon 74:63-65.

Nicoletti, F.J. and D. Alexander. 2006. Unusual natural injury in a Northern Hawk Owl. Loon 78:107-108.

Nicoletti, F. J.  2011.  Two Prairie Falcons Banded in Lakewood Township, St. Louis County.  Loon 83: 89-91.

Olson, R. 1952.  The possibilities of establishing a hawk and owl banding and photographic station at Duluth, Minnesota.  Flicker 24: 111-115.

Scheuenriann. K. 1992. Pocketfuls of Saw-whets.  The Pacific Raptor Report 10: 16-19.  (Banding at Hawk Ridge.) Wash. 63:141-143.

Sindelar, C. R., D. L. Evans, & J. W. Winship.  1980.  Nestling Bald Eagle survives lightning strike yet parent dies.  Passenger Pigeon 42(2): 67-68.

Svingen, P.1997. Fall vagrancy of the Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. Loon 69:106-107 (includes records from Hawk Ridge).

Sweet, J. & P.  2011.  Illinois Beach State Park Hawkwatch: 2010, A Year of Dismal Numbers.  Hawk Migration Studies 37: 14-17.  (Hawk Ridge data used).

Weidensaul, S. 2003. Bird in (Dave Evans) hand. Hawk Mountain News, Spring 2003.


(Major repositories for data gathered at Hawk Ridge)

USGS Bird Banding Laboratory. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD U.S.A. – repository for all banding records from Hawk Ridge.

Hawk Count. Hawk count. Hawk Migration Association of North America. – repository for all count observations from Hawk Ridge, Duluth.

Image Credits: Debbie Waters